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Currently, there are two forms of macular degeneration: “dry” (non-exudative) and “wet” (exudative, neovascular). The first type of disease is detected in 9 out of 10 cases of AMD. Approximately 10–20% of patients with non-exudative macular degeneration subsequently develop a “wet” form of AMD.
The development of a “dry” form of AMD is caused by tissue atrophy in the central parts of the retina due to age-related changes or as a result of the deposition of yellowish pigment accumulations (druses) here. The identification of drusen is one of the early pathognomonic symptoms of dry macular degeneration. The disease can develop in only one eye, or both eyes can gradually become involved in the pathological process.
In the early stages of the disease, no specific treatment is usually used. It has been found that taking antioxidants, including vitamins A, E and C, lutein and zeaxanthin, as well as zinc, prevents the progression of retinal symptoms in patients with non-exudative AMD. At the same time, taking vitamins and antioxidants does not have a preventive effect in patients at risk.
For them, lifestyle changes will be more effective:
• quitting smoking;
• losing weight;
• protecting your eyes from the harmful effects of direct sunlight;
• a diet that includes regular consumption of green leafy vegetables and fish;
• taking vitamin complexes containing folic acid, vitamins B6 and B12.
With the “dry” form of AMD, drug therapy is carried out aimed at preventing the delayed formation of drusen, lipofuscin deposits, increasing the density of macular pigment and thereby preventing the development of dystrophic changes in the central retinal zone. The use of traditional pharmacotherapy for various AMD is controversial. In the treatment of “dry” form of AMD, the effectiveness of drugs has not yet been confirmed by multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trials.
This publication has been prepared with the support of the Presidential Grants Fund