VITREOMACULAR TRACTION SYNDROME (VMTS)

“Vitreum” — translated from Greek means vitreous. In the eye, the vitreous fills the cavity behind the lens and is a clear, gel-like substance made of water, proteins and collagen fibers. From the other side the vitreous body is in contact with the retina.

Схема глазного яблока

 

In young and healthy people, the vitreous body is tightly attached to the retina. As the body undergoes natural aging processes or under certain pathological conditions (trauma, inflammation in the eye, diabetic retinopathy), the vitreous body moves away from the retina. This condition is called posterior vitreous detachment (PVD). In some cases, the vitreous body is tightly attached to the central area of the retina or the macular area, and with its incomplete detachment, a pulling effect on the internal parts of the retina occurs. This condition is called vitreomacular traction syndrome (VMTS). VMTS can lead to various pathological conditions such as macular hole, cystic macular edema.

SYMPTOMS

  • Metamorphopsia — a condition when objects are distorted, straight lines are broken, interrupted
    Витреомакулярный тракционный синдром
  • Decreased visual acuity
  • Micropsia, macropsia — a condition when objects seem to be smaller or larger than their actual size

Vitreomacular traction syndrome develops gradually, so the first symptoms may not be noticed and the disease can be detected already at later stages.

RISK FACTORS

· Age, people over 50

· High myopia

· Age-related macular degeneration, wet form

· Diabetic retinopathy

· Post-thrombotic retinopathy

DIAGNOSTICS

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is the most informative and non-invasive diagnostic method. This technology allows you to see all layers of the retina in cross-section and assess the extent of damage.

 

OCT is normal

 

OCT of VMTS

             

TREATMENT AND PROGNOSIS

Currently, there are 3 main methods of treatment:

  1. 1. Expectant tactics — observation and frequent OCT monitoring of patients who have no manifestations of symptoms, but there are changes according to OCT results in the form of fixation of vitreous fibers without a pronounced pulling effect.
  2. For patients who have the above symptoms and the risk of developing a macular rupture, surgical intervention is indicated — vitrectomy or removal of the vitreous humour and removal of dense membranes pulling the inner surface of the retina.
  3. Often, vitrectomy is performed in combination with cataract phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation, as this technique can accelerate the development of cataracts.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    

The only way to detect vitreomacular traction syndrome in the early stages is regular observation by an ophthalmologist and OCT once a year.

The Foundation launched the School of Health project, which aims to prevent eye diseases in humans. At regular free events of the project, doctors of various clinics talk about what diseases lead to visual impairment and how to prevent them.

Each listener receives a referral for free OCT examination of the posterior segment of the eye.

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